Kinase Subfamily ERK3
ERK3 (Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase 3) is a poorly-studied subfamily of MAPK. The family is eumetazoan-specific (i.e. in animals other than sponges), but is lost from both nematodes and insects. Mammals have two members, ERK3 and ERK4 (aka MAPK6 and MAPK4).
ERK3 lacks the TxY motif of most other MAPK, replacing it with SEG (in mammals). The S is known to be phosphorylated, so may act as a more traditional activation loop. Human Erk3 and Erk4 are activated by phosphorylation by PAKA kinases, and in turn can bind and activate MK5 kinase . MK5 is also lost in nematodes and insects.
Like ERK7, ERK3 has an N-terminal kinase domain with a long C-terminal uncharacterized region, no known upstream activating kinase, and is controlled by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated turnover.
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