Kinase Group Other
Kinase Classification: Other Group
This kinase group consists of kinases with an ePK domain that do not fit into any of the other major groups.
The aurora family are mitotic kinases, involved in centrosome and cilia biology. They are currently very active targets for cancer therapies.
Regulator of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, found in almost all eukaryotes.
A remarkable family with a highly divergent kinase domain. One Bud32 kinase is present in all sequenced archaeal and eukaryotic genomes, suggesting that it predates the eukaryotic/prokaryotic split. The yeast form, Bud32, is involved in budding and telomere regulation, while the human form (PRPK) is a p53 kinase.
CAM kinase kinase; activates CAMK1 upon calmodulin-binding. Also known to be an upstream kinase for the AMPK kinases.
Cell cycle kinase involved in regulation of DNA synthesis.
An almost universal eukaryotic kinase, with a divergent kinase domain. Hugely expanded in nematodes, but otherwise just one or two copies per kinome. Mouse form involved in germ cell function (Haspin = haploid germ cell–specific nuclear protein kinase) and may be involved in their leaving cell cycle.
ER-localized kinase activated by ER stress by non-canonical splicing of the XBP1 transcription factor.
I-kappa kinase phosphorylates I-kappaB, the inhibitor of NF-kB, and thus allows NF-kB to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Present in coelomates (insects and higher animals).
Relatively new classification category (Other/MAK2 or Other/MAK3) to distinguish sequences with both HisK and ePK domains from other HisKs. These sequences, first noted in dicty, are widely conserved in fungi but lost from Baker's yeast. Not to be confused with CMGC/RCK/MAK!
Fast-evolving metazoan kinase involved in meiosis.
Kinases of diverse functions, including NAK, GAK, BIKE and MPSK subfamilies.
A polymorphic family of kinases known for roles in flagellum and centrosome biology.
Animal-specific kinase family, very poorly characterized.
Very odd family, vertebrate-specific and with extremely divergent and inactive kinase domains.
Family of pseudokinases, acts as an adaptor in small GTPase signaling.
PAN3 is a universal eukaryotic protein involved in RNA de-adenylation, which contains a pseudokinase domain.
Stress-response kinases including GCN2, PEK, HRI and PKR kinases, with diverse functional roles, including AA starvation response (GCN2), ER stress (PEK), viral infection (PKR), and erythrocyte protein production (HRI).
Polo-Like Kinases, named after the Drosophila gene polo. One of three classes of mitotic kinases, found in most animals, as well as ciliates and fungi, but not plants.
Also known as SgK196, this appears to function as a mannose kinase.
REmote Secreted Kinases; kinase pseudogenes with signal peptides and very divergent kinase domains.
Pseudokinases found in all eukaryotes, with roles in secretory protein trafficking, nuclear tRNA export and chromosome biology..
A metazoan pseudokinase, lost in insects and nematodes, and of no reported function.
Another odd and largely catalytically inactive family, from the Drosophila gene slob (slowpoke binding protein; binds a calcium channel).
TBC domain kinase
Tousled-Like Kinase, named after their plant homologs
A holozoan-specific functional MAPKK, phosphorylates p38, potential roles in mitosis and cancer.
Tau Tubulin Kinase, an almost-universal eukaryotic kinase.
Unc-51 like kinase, also includes the Drosophila gene fused (hedgehog signaling). Yeast APG1 is involved in autophagy.
Vacuolar Protein Sorting kinase.
Includes the Wee1 mitotic kinase, which controls cell cycle progression by inhibitory phosphorylation of CDC2/CDK1. See Wikipedia entry for S. pombe
"With no K (Lysine)" name reflects the lack of the catalytic lysine (it is present but in a different part of the domain). Two of the four human homologs involved in renal cell function, but the family is virtually universal throughout eukaryotes.
This consists of kinases so divergent that they don't even relate to any other kinases in the Other group. Many are catalytically dead and may even have lost structural elements of the kinase domain, and do not have long-distance orthology, though this may change for some: the sequencing of the urchin genome for instance has found orthologs for some human Other_Unique kinases, and will probably promote them to new families within this group.
Additional 'Other' families
Several other families exist in this group, which are specific to closely related organisms. These include several yeast families (RAN, HAL...), animal kinases (NKF2-4), several Dictyostelium (Dicty1, Dicty2...) and even more ciliate genes (Ciliate-A1, D2...) which appear to be well-behaved kinases, but do not have obvious homologs in other well-known kinomes.