Kinase Group Other

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Kinase Classification: Other Group

This kinase group consists of kinases with an ePK domain that do not fit into any of the other major groups.

Aur

The aurora family are mitotic kinases, involved in centrosome and cilia biology. They are currently very active targets for cancer therapies.

Bub

Regulator of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, found in almost all eukaryotes.

Bud32

A remarkable family with a highly divergent kinase domain. One Bud32 kinase is present in all sequenced archaeal and eukaryotic genomes, suggesting that it predates the eukaryotic/prokaryotic split. The yeast form, Bud32, is involved in budding and telomere regulation, while the human form (PRPK) is a p53 kinase.

CAMKK

CAM kinase kinase; activates CAMK1 upon calmodulin-binding. Also known to be an upstream kinase for the AMPK kinases.

CDC7

Cell cycle kinase involved in regulation of DNA synthesis.

Haspin

An almost universal eukaryotic kinase, with a divergent kinase domain. Hugely expanded in nematodes, but otherwise just one or two copies per kinome. Mouse form involved in germ cell function (Haspin = haploid germ cell–specific nuclear protein kinase) and may be involved in their leaving cell cycle.

IRE

ER-localized kinase activated by ER stress by non-canonical splicing of the XBP1 transcription factor.

IKK

I-kappa kinase phosphorylates I-kappaB, the inhibitor of NF-kB, and thus allows NF-kB to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Present in coelomates (insects and higher animals).

MAK2/3

Relatively new classification category (Other/MAK2 or Other/MAK3) to distinguish sequences with both HisK and ePK domains from other HisKs. These sequences, first noted in dicty, are widely conserved in fungi but lost from Baker's yeast. Not to be confused with CMGC/RCK/MAK!

Mos

Fast-evolving metazoan kinase involved in meiosis.

NAK

Kinases of diverse functions, including NAK, GAK, BIKE and MPSK subfamilies.

Nek

A polymorphic family of kinases known for roles in flagellum and centrosome biology.

NKF1

Animal-specific kinase family, very poorly characterized.

NKF5

Very odd family, vertebrate-specific and with extremely divergent and inactive kinase domains.

NRBP

Family of pseudokinases, acts as an adaptor in small GTPase signaling.

PAN3

PAN3 is a universal eukaryotic protein involved in RNA de-adenylation, which contains a pseudokinase domain.

PEK

Stress-response kinases including GCN2, PEK, HRI and PKR kinases, with diverse functional roles, including AA starvation response (GCN2), ER stress (PEK), viral infection (PKR), and erythrocyte protein production (HRI).

PLK

Polo-Like Kinases, named after the Drosophila gene polo. One of three classes of mitotic kinases, found in most animals, as well as ciliates and fungi, but not plants.

POMK

Also known as SgK196, this appears to function as a mannose kinase.

RESK

REmote Secreted Kinases; kinase pseudogenes with signal peptides and very divergent kinase domains.

SCYL

Pseudokinases found in all eukaryotes, with roles in secretory protein trafficking, nuclear tRNA export and chromosome biology..

SgK071

A metazoan pseudokinase, lost in insects and nematodes, and of no reported function.

Slob

Another odd and largely catalytically inactive family, from the Drosophila gene slob (slowpoke binding protein; binds a calcium channel).

TBCK

TBC domain kinase

TLK

Tousled-Like Kinase, named after their plant homologs

TOPK

A holozoan-specific functional MAPKK, phosphorylates p38, potential roles in mitosis and cancer.

TTK

Tau Tubulin Kinase, an almost-universal eukaryotic kinase.

ULK

Unc-51 like kinase, also includes the Drosophila gene fused (hedgehog signaling). Yeast APG1 is involved in autophagy.

VPS15

Vacuolar Protein Sorting kinase.

Wee

Includes the Wee1 mitotic kinase, which controls cell cycle progression by inhibitory phosphorylation of CDC2/CDK1. See Wikipedia entry for S. pombe

Wnk

"With no K (Lysine)" name reflects the lack of the catalytic lysine (it is present but in a different part of the domain). Two of the four human homologs involved in renal cell function, but the family is virtually universal throughout eukaryotes.

Other-Unique

This consists of kinases so divergent that they don't even relate to any other kinases in the Other group. Many are catalytically dead and may even have lost structural elements of the kinase domain, and do not have long-distance orthology, though this may change for some: the sequencing of the urchin genome for instance has found orthologs for some human Other_Unique kinases, and will probably promote them to new families within this group.

Additional 'Other' families

Several other families exist in this group, which are specific to closely related organisms. These include several yeast families (RAN, HAL...), animal kinases (NKF2-4), several Dictyostelium (Dicty1, Dicty2...) and even more ciliate genes (Ciliate-A1, D2...) which appear to be well-behaved kinases, but do not have obvious homologs in other well-known kinomes.